Malaria Causes, Treatment, and Its Prevention

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What is Malaria?

Malaria is a Protozoan Parasite also known as Plasmodium that enters the blood. It kills millions of people every year up to 40%-50% of people are prone to this disease zones. Malaria fever zones are:

  • India
  • Europe
  • Africa
  • South East and Middle East Asia
  • Central and South America
  • South Pacific
  • Eastern Europe

Here are the Malaria disease details. A mosquito is responsible for causing this infectious disease. It affects the other mosquito that feeds on humans. Initially, an infected mosquito bites a human. The parasites multiply in the person’s liver before infecting and destroying Red Blood Cells(RBC). An Anopheles mosquito is responsible for the malaria disease. So, its bite affects the human’s RBC cells in the body.

Symptoms of Malaria:

  • Shaking chills
  • Flue
  • Illness
  • High fever

Causes of Malaria:

Malaria fever can happen if a mosquito tainted with the Plasmodium parasite chomps you. There are four sorts of parasites that can contaminate people with Plasmodium vivax,ovale,malariae, falciparum.
Falciparum causes a more serious type of ailment and the individuals who get this type of this disease have a high danger of death. So, if effective Treatment of Malaria Fever has not done, the person may die. A tainted mother can pass the malady to her child during childbirth known as intrinsic intestinal sickness.
Blood is the mode of transmission, so it can transmit through:

  • An organ transplant
  • A transfusion
  • Utilization of shared needles or syringes

Treatment of Malaria:

These are effective treatments given to Malaria affected people:

Type of infection Suppressive Treatment Radical Treatment
P. vivax and P. ovale – (most widely distributed and rarest type) Chloroquine 25 mg of salt/kg over 36-48 hours Primaquine for 14 days.
P. malariae and P. knowlesi-( not as widespread) Chloroquine 25 mg of salt/kg over 36-48 hours None
P. falciparum-(most dangerous) Treatment of Malaria fever depends on severity and sensitivity Artesunate+Pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine or other ACTs, OR Quinine plus tetracycline Primaquine 0.75mg/kg in the single dose as gametocytocidal
Mixed – {P. vivax + P. falciparum} ACT as for P. falciparum Primaquine as for P. vivax

Malaria Life Cycle

Malaria fever Life-cycle involves 2 hosts. During a blood meal, Anopheles mosquito implants Sporozoites into the human host.

  1. Sporozoites infect liver cells.
  2. Mature into schizonts, which splits and let out merozoites.
  3. Hypnozoites can continue in the liver and cause weakness in the bloodstream from weeks to years.
  4. The Merozoite parasites face asexual multiplication in the erythrocytes RBC.
  5. The ring stage trophozoites transform into schizonts, which splits in releasing the merozoites.

Prevention of Malaria

Being alert to the risks

  • To check whether you want to take preventative malaria treatment for the countries you’re visiting.
  • Even if you grew up in a country where malaria fever is public. You still want to take precautions to protect yourself from infection if you’re traveling to a risk area.
  • No one has complete immunity to fight with malaria. So, follow certain precautionary methods in the danger areas.

Preventing Bites

It’s impossible to avoid mosquito bites totally.To avert being bitten:
  • Opt someplace that has effective air conditioning and screening on doors and windows.
  • Sleep covered over your bed with a mosquito net that’s been burnt with pesticide.
  • In your sleeping areas use insect repellents on your skin.
  • The least effective repellents include diethyltoluamide (DEET) and are easy in sprays, roll-on, sticks, and creams.

Antimalarial Tablets

There’s is no present vaccine that offers treatment against Malaria fever so it’s very crucial to take antibiotics for Malaria to bring down your chances of getting this disease.
Nevertheless, seeking steps to avert bites is also crucial. While picking medication:

  • Seek right antimalarial tablets before you go to the pharmacist
  • Follow the instructions included with your tablets carefully
  • Regular usage of tablets for 4 weeks after returning from your trip to cover the incubation period of the disease

If you opt antimalarial medication in the past, don’t use it for future trips. The antimalarial you need to take depends on disease-causing mosquitoes and whether they’re resistant to certain types of antimalarial medication.

Get Proximate Medical Advice

If you go ill while traveling in the disease area, you have to seek medical help.
Malaria fever may get worse very rapidly, so it’s crucial to get treated as soon as possible. While you’re traveling or after you return, remember to tell the doctor which type you have been taking. The identical antibiotics for Malaria shouldn’t be used to treat you as well.

DEET Insect Repellents

The chemical DEET is used in insect repellents. It’s not suggested for less than 2 months old babies. DEET is safe for children, adults and pregnant women if you go for manufacturer’s instructions:

  • Use on exposed skin.
  • Don’t spray directly on your face.
  • Spray into your hands and put on to your face
  • Avoid contact with lips and eyes
  • Wash your hands after applying
  • Don’t use upon irritated skin
  • Use DEET after applying sunscreen.

Mostly these mosquito repellants can prevent Malaria fever.